L’articolo, apparso su “Il sole 24 ore” del 20 giugno 2019, fa il punto della situazione sulla produzione mineraria, le riserve e le risorse globali del rame. Inoltre, porta alcuni esempi di come le aziende minerarie affrontano le sfide della sostenibilità, dell’efficienza energetica, dell’automazione e digitalizzazione.
Bibliografia e link.
Molte informazioni all’interno dell’articolo si possono trovare su
- http://www.icsg.org/ (World Copper Factbook 2018)
The European Copper Institute (ECI) strongly supports measures that help to improve the quality of water intended for human consumption. ECI therefore is in favour of EU-wide standards that help understanding and reduce sources of chemical and/or biological contamination in drinking water systems. This document outlines three main topics to be addressed in this context.
La presentazione è stata tenuta il 6 giugno 2019 al convegno “Dall’efficienza energetica alla decarbonizzazione in edilizia”, organizzato da GBC Italia ed EdicomEdizioni. Il ruolo dei materiali efficienti e delle tecnologie già esistenti ed economicamente convenienti, è stato confermato con tre casi studio, tra cui la sede INAIL a Roma.
Effects Based Methods are a promising new tool, and are considered for use under the Water Framework Directive. Effects Based Methods are a holistic approach which could assess the risks of chemical substances more accurately. Substances are grouped by their mode of action, and specific methods are subsequently developed based on this mode of action to establish a trigger value. This allows for regulating substances with the same mode of action.
This report evaluates the use of 13 Effects Based Methods that might be considered for regulating metals under the Water Framework Directive. Each Effects Based Method was evaluated with respect to three criteria that are critical when considering such methods for regulatory use. These criteria include specificity, sensitivity (to metals and to other classes of toxicants), and the link to higher levels of biological organisation.
The evaluation concludes that that each of the available methods has at least one significant limitation. Therefore, Effects Based Methods are today not well suited for regulating metals under the Water Framework Directive. Additionally, since metals are easily and routinely measured, the added benefit of developing Effects Based Methods for metals is unclear. Instead, it is recommended to further focus on developing bioavailability models for metals mixtures. Such models would be a more practical and cost-effective tool to assess metals under the Water Framework Directive in a holistic way.
No. Copper is not susceptible to precipitation hardening.
- Class 1 is a forging whose failure would lead to uncontrollable flooding, the total immobilisation of the vessel or serious harm to personnel.(e.g. First Level systems in submarines).
- Class 2 is a forging whose failure would lead to severe but controllable flooding, the serious disruption of weapon systems, main propulsion machinery, or its attendant auxillaries, including generators
- Class 3 is a forging whose failure does not constitute an immediate, significant hazard.
- Class 4 is a forging which is used for forging stock only.
On average, copper alloy cages must be cleaned approximately once or twice a year, which is significantly fewer than traditional cages, over a service life.
L’articolo, pubblicato su “GT” nel 2004, descrive la teoria e la tecniche per effettuare correttamente le brasature dolci e forti sul tubo di rame.